Research and Development
  Biosensors Expand/Collapse
  Low-Field Sensing Expand/Collapse
  All Papers & Presentations
Papers & Presentations
(Links to selected articles and presentations by members of our staff).

M.A. Torija, et. al., “High throughput Salmonella Detection with Tunneling Magnetoresistance sensors (.pdf),” 61st Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 1, 2016, New Orleans.

J.E. Davies, et. al., “Domain Wall Chirality in Exchange Spring Co/Pd Multilayers (.pdf),” MMM/Intermag 2016, January 14, 2016, San Diego.

M.A. Torija, et. al., “GMR-Based Salmonella Detection System: Approaching 1 CFU Detection (.pdf),” MMM/Intermag 2016, January 13, 2016, San Diego.

Daniel A. Baker, “Isolation Technology Increases Density and Reliability (.pdf),” Electronic Specifier Power, January 2015.

Joe Davies, “Magnetoresistive Random-Access Memory,” 13th Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium, August 12 - 14, 2013, Minneapolis.

J. E. Davies, et. al., “Reversal mode instability and magnetoresistance in perpendicular (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) pseudo-spin-valves (.pdf),” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, July 11, 2013.

M. S. Pierce, J. E. Davies, J. J. Turner, K. Chesnel, E. E. Fullerton, J. Nam, R. Hailstone, S. D. Kevan, J. B. Kortright, Kai Liu, L. B. Sorensen, B. R. York, and O. Hellwig, “Influence of structural disorder on magnetic domain formation in perpendicular anisotropy thin films,” Physical Review B, Vol. 87, May 24, 2013.

B. J. Kirby, M. T. Rahman, R. K. Dumas, J. E. Davies, C. H. Lai, and Kai Liu, “Reversal mode instability and magnetoresistance in perpendicular (Co/Pd)/Cu/(Co/Ni) pseudo-spin-valves (.pdf),” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 113, January 17, 2013 (redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright).

J. E. Davies, et. al., “Low temperature coupling in [Co/Pd]/Cu/[Co/Ni] spin valves with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (.pdf),” MMM/Intermag 2013, January 14, 2013, Chicago.

N. Bingham, R. Caballeo-Flores, M. H. Phan, M. A. Torija, C. Leighton, and H. Srikanth, “Magnetocaloric effect and critical behavior in Pr0.5Sr0.5MnO3: An analysis on the validity of Maxwell relation and nature of phase transitions (.pdf),” InterMag 2012, May 11, 2012, Vancouver.

P. K. Greene, D. A. Gilbert, B. J. Kirby, J. A. Borchers, J. W. Lau, C-H Lai, J. Osten, J. Fassbender, J. E. Davies, M. R. Fitzsimmons, and K. Liu, “Magnetization Reversal in Nanostructures with Graded Perpendicular Anisotropy (.pdf),” 2012 MRS Spring Meeting & Exhibit, April 10, 2012, San Francisco.

Ya. B. Bazaliy and Andrzej Stankiewicz, “Ballistic precessional contribution to the conventional magnetic switching,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 98, April 4, 2011.

J. E. Davies, et. al., “Reversal of patterned Co/Pd multilayers with graded magnetic structure,” Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 15, 2010, Atlanta, Ga. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 109, March 28, 2011.

J. Davies, A. Stankiewicz, and J. G. Deak, “Asymmetric Hysteresis Loop Expansion in Strained Magnetic Tunnel Junction,” Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 16, 2010, Atlanta, Ga.

Daniel A. Baker and Jay L. Brown, “Advances in Solid-state Magnetic Sensors for Medical Devices,” Advanced Technology Workshop on Microelectronic Packaging for Medical Devices, June 10, 2010, Minneapolis, Minn.

Andrzej Stankiewicz, “Energetic analysis of fast magnetic switching,” APS March Meeting, March 16, 2010, Portland, Ore. Published in Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Vol. 55, No. 2.

J. E. Davies, B. J. Kirby, K. Liu, S. M. Watson, G. T. Zimanyi, R. D. Shul, P. A. Kienzel, and J. A. Borchers, “Controlled anisotropy variation in cobalt thickness graded cobalt/palladium multilayers (.pdf),” Joint MMM-Intermag Conference, January 22, 2010, Washington, D.C.

J. M. Pomeroy, T. C. White, H. Grube, J. C. Read, and J. E. Davies, “Magnetoresistance based first-order reversal curve analysis of magnetic tunnel junctions,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, July 16, 2009.

J. E. Davies, O. Hellwig, E. E. Fullerton, M. Winklhofer, R. D. Shull, and K. Liu, “Frustration driven stripe domain formation in Co/Pt multilayer films,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, July 13, 2009.

C. Kleye and J. Brown, “Different GMR/TMR Devices and Integration Advancements,” Magnetoresistive Sensors and Magnetic Systems Symposium (.pdf), April 1, 2009, Wetzlar, Germany.

A. Ozbay, A. Gokce, E. Nowak, T. Flanagan, R. Stearrett, and C. Nordman, “Low-Frequency Magnetization Noise in Spin-Valve Structures (.pdf),” Meeting of The American Physical Society, March 16, 2009, Pittsburgh, Pa.

J. Nordling, R. L. Millen, H. A. Bullen, M. D. Porter, M. Tondra, and M. C. Granger, “Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors. 1. Internally Calibrated Readout of Scanned Magnetic Arrays,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 80, No. 21, pp. 7930–7939, October 1, 2008.

R. L. Millen, J. Nordling, H. A. Bullen, M. D. Porter, M. Tondra, and M. C. Granger, “Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors. 2. Detection of Biorecognition Events at Self-Referencing and Magnetically Tagged Arrays,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 80, No. 21, pp. 7940–7946, October 1, 2008.

J. G. Deak, “Effect of Vortex Handedness on Spin Momentum Torque Dynamics in Dual Vortex Ferromagnetic Nanopillar Structures (.pdf),” Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 5-9, 2007, Tampa, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, April 2, 2008.

A. Edelstein, G. Fischer, J. Burnette, S. Cheng, E. Nowak, William Egelhoff, and C. Nordman, “Technique for Minimizing the Effect of 1/f Noise in Magnetic Sensors,” American Physical Society Meeting, March 14, 2008, New Orleans, La.

J. E. Burnette, A. S. Edelstein, G. A. Fischer, E. Nowak, W. Bernard, S. F. Cheng, C. Nordman, and W. F. Egelhoff, “Initial studies on microelectromechanical system flux concentrators,” Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7, 2007, Tampa, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 103, No. 7, March 14, 2008.

A. Gokce, E. R. Nowak, and C. Nordman, “Shot noise suppression in magnetic tunnel junctions in series,” Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7, 2007, Tampa, Fla. Proceedings journal: Journal of Applied Physics.

P. G. Eames, J. M. Anderson, C. A. Nordman, and D. J. Brownell, “Magnetic Biosensor Using Vertical GMR in Ring Geometry,” Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 5-9, 2007, Tampa, Fla.

J. Deak, C. Nordman, R. Schneider, P. Eames, and A. Jander, “Application Driven Magnetic Sensor Design Considerations Utilizing SDT,” Battlespace Acoustic and Magnetic Sensors Conference, August 23, 2007, Laurel, Md.

J. G. Deak, “Influence of Pinned-Layer Dispersion on Magnetic Tunnel Junction Switching Distributions,” presented at the 10th Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, January 8, 2007, Baltimore, Md. Published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 2821-2823, June 2007. (©2007 IEEE. Personal use of IEEE material provided through this site is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.)

Peter Eames and E. Dan Dahlberg, “Magnetism at the Nanoscale: A Voyeur’s Tale,” Materials Research Society Meeting, April 11, 2007, San Francisco, Calif.

U. K. Demirok, N. Pekas, M. C. Granger, R. L. Millen, T. Kawaguchi, J. Nordling, H. Bullen, M. Tondra, and M. Porter, “Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors for Chip-Scale Biorecognition: Towards Chip-Scale Platforms with Ultrahigh Address Densities (.pdf),” Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics and Photonics Symposium, March 12-16, 2007, Phoenix, Ariz.

Y. Zhang, N. H. Kim, J. Wang, and J. Daughton, “Room Temperature Tunneling Characteristics through SDT Nanoscaled Lines into n-Doped Silicon (.pdf),” Meeting of The American Physical Society, March 5, 2007, Denver, Colo.

P. Jeppson, P. Eames, M. Tondra, et. al., “Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Achieving the superparamagnetic limit by chemical reduction,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 100, No. 11, December 1, 2006.

J. G. Deak, J. M. Daughton, and A. V. Pohm, “Effect of Resistance-Area-Product and Thermal Environment on Writing of Magneto-Thermal MRAM (.pdf),” INTERMAG, May 8, 2006, San Diego, Calif. Published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 2721-2723, October 2006 (©2006 IEEE).

D. A. Baker, J. L. Brown, and C. H. Smith, “A New Spin on Magnetic Sensors for Medical Devices,” Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry, Vol. 28, No. 6, p. 112, June 2006.

A. V. Pohm, J. M. Daughton, and J. G. Deak, “Thermally Assisted Writing of Cells with IrMn Pinning Using 27 Nanosecond Pulses,” INTERMAG, May 8, 2006, San Diego, Calif. (©2006 IEEE).

D. L. Schulz, A. Caruso, P. Jeppson, R. Sailer, E. Jarabek, J. Sandstrom, P. Eames, M. Tondra, and D. B. Chrisey, “Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles in Flexible EM Shields and Galvanic Isolators,” Meeting of the Materials Research Society, April 20, 2006, San Francisco, Calif.

J. Deak, A. Jander, E. Lange, S. Mundon, D. Brownell, and L. Tran, "Delta-Sigma Digital Magnetometer Utilizing Bi-Stable Spin-Dependent-Tunneling Magnetic Sensors," presented at the Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), November 1, 2005, San Jose, Calif. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, No. 8, April 15, 2006.

A. V. Pohm, J. M. Daughton, and J. G. Deak, "Analysis of 60 Nanometer Diameter SDT Memory Cells with Thermally Assisted Writing," presented at the Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), November 2, 2005, San Jose, Calif. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, No. 8, April 15, 2006.

L. Yuan, S. H. Liou, and D. Wang, "Temperature dependence of magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with different free layer structures," Physical Review B, Vol. 73, April 3, 2006.

M. Tondra, A. Popple, N. Pekas, and M. D. Porter, "Detecting and Manipulating Magnetic Nanoparticles (.pdf)" (invited), Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), November 2, 2005, San Jose, Calif.

A. S. Edelstein, G. A. Fischer, M. Pedersen, E. R. Nowak, S. F. Cheng, and C. A. Nordman, "Progress toward a thousandfold reduction in 1/f noise in magnetic sensors using an ac microelectromechanical system flux concentrator," (invited), Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), November 2, 2005, San Jose, Calif. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, No. 8, April 15, 2006.

D. Wang, J. Daughton, C. Nordman, P. Eames, and J. Fink, "Exchange coupling between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers via Ru and application for a linear magnetic field sensor," presented at the Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), November 2, 2005, San Jose, Calif. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, No. 8, April 15, 2006.

Dr. James G. Deak, "Thermal MRAM (invited) (.pdf)," International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD), October 4, 2005, San Jose, Calif.

Dexin Wang, Jay Brown, Tim Hazelton, and Jim Daughton, "Angle Sensor Using Spin Valve With SAF Structure (.pdf)," presented at INTERMAG 2005, April 7, 2005, Nagoya, Japan. Published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 3700-3702, October 2005 (©2005 IEEE).

Mark C. Tondra, "Integrated Mass-Fabrication of Microfluidics for Diagnostic Chips (.pdf)" (poster presentation), Chips to Hits Conference, September 12, 2005, Boston, Mass.

Mark Tondra, Anthony Popple, and Nikola Pekas, "Integrated detection and manipulation of paramagnetic microspheres (.pdf)," Third International Meeting on the Diagnostic and Biotechnology Applications of SuperParaMagnetic Microspheres, June 17, 2005, San Diego, Calif.

N. Pekas, M. Granger, M. Tondra, A. Popple, and M. D. Porter, "Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format," Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials, Vol. 293, No. 1, pp. 725-730, May 1, 2005.

Jim Deak, "Spin Momentum Transfer and Thermally Assisted Magnetization Reversal" (invited), Meeting of the Materials Research Society, April 1, 2005, San Francisco, Calif.

A. Jander, C. Smith, and R. Schneider, "Magnetoresisitive Sensors for Nondestructive Evaluation (.pdf)" (invited), 12th SPIE International Symposium, March 8, 2005, San Diego, Calif.

B. A. Everitt, D. Olson, T. van Nguyen, N. Amin, T. Pokhil, P. Kolbo, L. Zhong, E. Murdock, A. V. Pohm, and J. M. Daughton, "Vertical giant magnetoresistive read heads for 50-Gb/in2 magnetic recording," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 125-131, Jan. 2005 (©2005 IEEE).

Jim Daughton, "Magnetic Spin Devices: 7 Years from Discover to Product. Where now? (.pdf)," 2004 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting Technical Program, Symposium X—Frontiers of Materials Research—Innovations to Impact, December 1, 2004, Boston, Mass.

R. Sinclair and A. Pohm, "Scaling and Power Properties of Thermally Written MRAM (.pdf)," The 5th Annual Non-Volatile Memory Technology Symposium, November 16, 2004, Orlando, Fla.

P. Dhagat, A. Jander, and C. Nordman, "Correlation of telegraph noise between parallel and antiparallel states of magnetic tunnel junctions," 49th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7-11, 2004, Jacksonville, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, No. 10, May 5, 2005.

J. Anderson, D. Brownell, G. Prinz, H. Huggins, L. Van, J. Christodoulides, and J. Zhu, "Address line-assisted switching of vertical magnetoresistive random access memory (VMRAM) cells (.pdf)," 49th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7-11, 2004, Jacksonville, Fla.

D. Wang, C. Nordman, Z. Qian, J. Daughton, and J. Myers, "Magnetostriction Effect of Amorphous CoFeB Thin Films and Application in Spin Dependent Tunnel Junctions (.pdf)," 49th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7-11, 2004, Jacksonville, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, No. 10, May 15, 2005.

A. Pohm, J. Daughton, and J. Deak, "Optimized, Scaled, Toggle, SDT Memory Elements (.pdf)," 49th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7-11, 2004, Jacksonville, Fla.

J. Deak, "Effect of Spin Injection in Thermally Assisted MRAM (.pdf)," presented at 49th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 7-11, 2004, Jacksonville, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, No. 10, May 15, 2005.

Carl H. Smith and Mark Tondra, "Magnetoresistive Detection of Flowing and Immobilized Assay Labels (.pdf)," Nanomaterials 2004 Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine Conference, October 27, 2004, Stamford, Conn.

Carl H. Smith, "Commercial Applications of Spintronics Technology: Magnetic Sensing, Data Coupling, and MRAM (.pdf)," Nanomaterials 2004 Nanoelectronics, Nanophotonics and Nanomagnetics Conference, October 25, 2004, Stamford, Conn.

Mark Tondra, Tony Popple, Nikola Pekas, Rachel Millen, John Nordling, Marc Porter, and Albrecht Jander, "Microfabricated tools for manipulation and analysis of magnetic microcarriers (.ppt)," presented at Magnetic Microcarriers, July 20, 2004, Lyon, France.

N. C. Emley, F. J. Albert, E. M. Ryan, I. N. Krivorotov, D. C. Ralph, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, and A. Jander, "Reduction of spin transfer by synthetic antiferromagnets (.pdf)," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 84, No. 21, p. 4257, May 24, 2004.

R. A. Sinclair, C. Smith, and R. W. Schneider, "Intraweapon Wireless Communication," 48th Annual Fuzing Conference, Charlotte, N.C., April 26-28, 2004.

Zhenghong Qian, Dexin Wang, Jim Daughton, Mark Tondra, Cathy Nordman and Anthony Popple, "Linear Spin-Valve Bridge Sensing Devices (.pdf)," presented at the 9th Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, January 7, 2004. Published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics,Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 2643-2645, July 2004 (©2004 IEEE).

D. Wang, C. Nordman, J. M. Daughton, Z. Qian, and J. Fink, "70% TMR at Room Temperature for SDT Sandwich (.pdf)," presented at the 9th Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, January 6, 2004. Published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, July 2004 (©2004 IEEE).

Dr. Jim Daughton, "Spintronics Applications at NVE," First Annual Center for Nanoscale Systems Nanotechnology Symposium, May 14, 2004, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

Carl H. Smith, Robert W. Schneider, and Dexin Wang, "Spin-Dependent Tunneling: A New Magnetic Sensing Technology," Sensors, March 2004.

D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, and J. M. Daughton (contributors), Spin Electronics, Published by Springer, 2004 (preview via Google Books).

James G. Deak, "Remnant Moment and Interlayer Exchange Coupling Dependence of the Switching Behavior of AF Coupled Sense Layers (.pdf)," presented at the 9th Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, January 8, 2004.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, "Design and Performance of GMR Sensors for the Detection of Magnetic Microbeads in Biosensors (.pdf)." (Modified from the version that appears in Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Elsevier Science, Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 209-218, November 1, 2003. The published version can be found at Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Elsevier Science (.pdf).

C. R. Tamanaha, S. P. Mulvaney, K. A. Wahowski, M. C. Tondra, L. J. Whitman, and R. J. Colton, "Cellular Genomic Analysis with GMR Sensor Arrays (.pdf)," 7th lnternational Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems, October 5-9, 2003, Squaw Valley, Calif.

Zhenghong Qian, J. M. Daughton, Dexin Wang, and M. Tondra, "Magnetic design and fabrication of linear spin-valve sensors," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 3322-3324, Sept. 2003 (©2003 IEEE).

D. Wang, J. M. Daughton, Z. Qian; M. Tondra, C. Nordman, "Spin-dependent tunneling junctions with superparamagnetic sensing layers," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 2812-2814, Sept. 2003 (©2003 IEEE).

Mark Tondra, Albrecht Jander, Catherine Nordman, John Anderson, Zhenghong Qian, Dexin Wang, "3-Axis Magnetometers using Spin Dependent Tunneling: Reduced Size and Power (.pdf)." This is a preprint version of the article that appears in The International Society for Optical Engineering Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5090 (2003), p. 208-213, Sept. 2003.

Carl H. Smith, Ph.D., "Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) for Diffusion Bonded Components (.pdf)," Defense Technical Information Center, August 2003.

James M. Daughton, "Spin Electronics Final Report, Chapter 6—Magnetoelectronic Devices (.pdf)," p.64, Defense Technical Information Center, August 2003.

C. H. Smith, R. W. Schneider, T. Dogaru, and S. T. Smith, "Eddy-Current Testing with GMR Magnetic Sensor Arrays (.pdf)," presented at the Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference, Green Bay, Wisc., July 28, 2003. Published in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 2323, ed. by D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, (American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 2003) pp. 406-413.

Carl H. Smith and Robert W. Schneider, "Very Dense Magnetic Sensor Arrays for Precision Measurement and Detection (.pdf)," Sensors EXPO, June 3, 2003, Chicago, Ill.

Zhenghong Qian, Dexin Wang, Jim Daughton, Mark Tondra, Erik Lange, Cathy Nordman, Anthony Popple, John Myers, and Jim Schuetz, "Magnetoresistive signal isolators employing linear spin-valve sensing resistors (.pdf)," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, No. 10, pp. 6870-6872, May 15, 2003.

C. H. Smith, R. W. Schneider, and A. V. Pohm, "High-resolution giant magnetoresistance on-chip arrays for magnetic imaging," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, No. 10, pp. 6864-6866, May 15, 2003.

Dexin Wang, James M. Daughton, Zhenghong Qian, Cathy Nordman, Mark Tondra, and Art Pohm, "Spin Dependent Tunneling Junctions with Reduced Neel Coupling (.pdf)," presented at the 47th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 15-18, 2002, Tampa, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, No. 10, p. 8558, May 15, 2003.

A. Jander, C. A. Nordman, A. V. Pohm, and J. M. Anderson, "Chopping techniques for low-frequency nanotesla spin-dependent tunneling field sensors," presented at the 47th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 15, 2002, Tampa, Fla. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, No. 10, pp. 8382-8384, May 15, 2003.

R. Beech and R. Sinclair, "Low Power 256K MRAM Design (.pdf)," Proceedings of the Nonvolatile Memory Technology Symposium 2002, November 6, 2002.

R. Sinclair and R. Beech, "High Speed, Radiation Hard MRAM Buffer (.pdf)," Proceedings of the Nonvolatile Memory Technology Symposium 2002, November 6, 2002.

J. Anderson, C. Nordman, M. Tondra, R. W. Schneider, and R. A. Sinclair, "Magnetic Anomaly Sensing for Landmine Alternative Systems (.pdf)," National Defense Industrial Association 2002 Mines, Demolition and Non-Lethal Conference, June 3-5, 2002, Tampa, Fla.

Carl H. Smith and Robert W. Schneider, "Chip-Size Magnetic Sensor Array (.pdf)," Sensors EXPO, May 21, 2002.

Carl H. Smith and Robert W. Schneider, "GMR and SDT Sensors and Arrays for Low-Field Magnetic Applications (.pdf)," Sensors EXPO, May 21, 2002, San Jose, Calif.

D. Wang, M. Tondra, C. Nordman, Z. Qian, J. M. Daughton, E. Lange, D. Brownell, L. Tran, and J. Schuetz, "Prototype spin-dependent tunneling isolators integrated with integrated circuit electronics," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 91, No. 10, p. 8405, May 15, 2002.

Jian-Gang Zhu and James Daughton, " A Novel Low Switching Current MRAM Design," INTERMAG, April 28, 2002, Amsterdam.

D. Wang, M. Tondra, and J. M. Daughton, "Push-pull bridge sensor using SDT junctions without shields," INTERMAG, April 28, 2002, Amsterdam.

John Myers, "Magnetic Couplers in Industrial Systems—A new generation of couplers conquers noise with high speed and multiple channels," Sensors, March 2002.

S. A. Wolf, D. D. Awschalom, R. A. Buhrman, J. M. Daughton, S. von Molnár, M. L. Roukes, A. Y. Chtchelkanova, D. M. Treger, "Spintronics: A Spin-Based Electronics Vision for the Future," Science, Vol. 294, No. 5546, pp. 1488-1495, November 16, 2001.

M. Tondra, M. Granger, R. Fuerst, M. Porter, C. Nordman, J. Taylor, and S. Akou, "Design of Integrated Microfluidic Device for Sorting Magnetic Beads in Biological Assays (.pdf)." (Modified from the version that appears in the IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 37, No. 6, November 2001.)

Carl H. Smith and Robert W. Schneider, "The Color of Money—Using Magnetic Media Detection to Identify Currency," Sensors, November 9, 2001.

John M. Anderson and Arthur V. Pohm, "Ultra-Low Hysteresis and Self-Biasing in GMR Sandwich Sensor Elements," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 37, No. 4, p. 1989, July 2001 (©2001 IEEE).

M. Tondra, "Development of nanostructured magnetoresistive devices," IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, Oct. 28, 2001, Maui, Hawaii.

Mark Tondra, Zhenghong Qian, Dexin Wang, Cathy Nordman, John Anderson, Albrecht Jander, Bob Sinclair, and James Daughton, "Shape Biased Low Power Spin Dependent Tunneling Magnetic Field Sensors," Meeting of the MSS Specialty Group on Battlefield Acoustic and Seismic Sensing, Magnetic and Electric Field Sensors, Volume 1, October 23, 2001, Laurel, Md.

S. E. Russek, P. Kabos, T. Silva, F. B. Mancoff, D. Wang, Z. Qian, and J. M. Daughton, "High Frequency Measurements of CoFeHfO Thin Films (.pdf)," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 2248-2250, July 2001 (U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright).

A. V. Pohm, J. M. Anderson, R. S. Beech, and J. M. Daughton, "Exchange Coupling and Edge Pinning in Vertical Head Sensors," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 37, No. 4, p. 1681, July 2001 (©2001 IEEE).

W. Zou, H. N. G. Wadley, X. W. Zhou, R. A. Johnson, and D. Brownell, "Composition-Morphology-Property Relations For Giant Magnetoresistance Multilayers Grown By RF Diode Sputtering (.pdf),"
Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Vol. 674, 2001.

James M. Daughton, "Advanced MRAM Concepts (.pdf)," Defense Technical Information Center, February 7, 2001 (© NVE).

D. S. Reed, C. Nordman, and J. M. Daughton, "Low frequency noise in magnetic tunnel junctions," INTERMAG, Jan. 7, 2001, San Antonio, Texas.

James M. Daughton, "Sensors and Isolators Using Spin Dependent Transport (.pdf)," June 2000.

R. S. Beech, J. A. Anderson, A. V. Pohm, and J. M. Daughton, "Curie Point Written Magnetoresistive Memory (.pdf)," presented at the 44th Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 15-18, 1999, San Jose, Calif. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, No. 9, p. 6403, May 1, 2000.

D. Wang, M. Tondra, A. V. Pohm, C. Nordman, J. Anderson, J. M. Daughton, and W. C. Black, "Spin dependent tunneling devices fabricated for magnetic random access memory applications using latching mode (.pdf)," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, No. 9, p. 6385, May 1, 2000 (this article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics).

Mark Tondra, James M. Daughton, Catherine Nordman, Dexin Wang, and John Taylor, "Micromagnetic Design of Spin-Dependent Tunnel Junctions for Optimized Sensor Performance (.pdf)," November 1999 (Modified from article published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 87, No. 9, pp. 4679-4681, May 1, 2000. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics).

James M. Daughton, "Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) Technology (.pdf)," February 4, 2000.

Carl H. Smith, Robert W. Schneider, and Mark Tondra, "Magnetic Biosensors," Sensors, Vol. 16, No.12, December 1999.

J. M. Daughton, A. V. Pohm, R. T. Fayfield, and C. H. Smith," Applications of spin dependent transport materials," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 32, No. 22, p. 169, November 21, 1999.

R. W. Schneider and C. H. Smith, "Low Magnetic Field Sensing with GMR Sensors, Part 2: GMR Sensors and Their Applications," Sensors, October 1, 1999.

R. W. Schneider and C. H. Smith, "Low Magnetic Field Sensing with GMR Sensors, Part 1: The Theory of Solid-State Magnetic Sensing," Sensors, September 1, 1999.

Mark Tondra and Dexin Wang, "High Temperature Pinning Properties of IrMn vs. FeMn in Spin Valves (.pdf)," Copyright, American Vacuum Society. (Modified from the version that appeared in the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 2220-2222, July 1999. The published version can be found at the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires permission of the author and the American Vacuum Society).

Jim Daughton and Jerry Granley, "Giant Magnetoresistance Devices Move In (.pdf)," Industrial Physicist, June 1999.

Mark Tondra, Marc Porter, and R. Lipert, "A Model for Detection of Immobilized Superparamagnetic Nanosphere Assay Labels using Giant Magnetoresistive Sensors (.pdf)," Copyright, American Vacuum Society, 1999 (Modified from the version that appears in the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, June/July 2000. The published version can be found at the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires permission of the author and the American Vacuum Society).

K. Bussmann, G. Prinz, S.Cheng, J. Zhu, Y. Zheng, J. Daughton, R. Beech, D. Wang, and R. Womack, "Current Perpendicular-to-Plane GMR for Magnetoresistive RAM (.pdf)," INTERMAG, May 21, 1999, Kyongju, Korea.

Mark Tondra, Dexin Wang, and James M. Daughton, "Magnetoresistive Characteristics of Schottky-Tunnel Hot Electron Spin Transistors (.pdf)," INTERMAG, May 18, 1999, Kyongju, Korea.

Carl H. Smith and Robert W. Schneider, "Low-Field Sensing With GMR Sensors (.pdf)," Sensors EXPO, May 4, 1999, Baltimore, Md.

Tamara Bratland, Michael J. Caruso, Robert W. Schneider, and Carl H. Smith, "A New Perspective on Magnetic Field Sensing," Sensors, December 1, 1998.

A. V. Pohm, J. M. Anderson, R. S. Beech, and J. M. Daughton, "Two Leg, Side By Side, 0.6 To 1.0 Micron Wide, High Output, Vertical GMR Head Sensors," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 34, No. 4, p. 1486, July 1998 (©1998 IEEE).

P. Ripka, M. Tondra, J. Stokes, and R. Beech, "AC-driven AMR and GMR magnetoresistors (.pdf)," Proceedings of The Twelth European Conference on Soild-State Transducers and The Ninth UK Conference on Sensors and Their Applications, pp. 967-969, September 13-16, 1998, Southampton, UK.

R. A. Sinclair, S. A. Mundon, S. C. Aryal, and C. M. Sinclair, "A practical 256K GMR NV memory for high shock applications," Nonvolatile Memory Technology Conference, June 24, 1998, Albuquerque, N. M.

Carl H. Smith and Robert W. Schneider, "Magnetic field sensing utilizing GMR materials," Sensor Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 230 - 236, 1998.

B. A. Everitt and A. V. Pohm, "Single-domain model for pseudo spin valve MRAM cells," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 3289-3291, September 1997.

A. V. Pohm, R. S. Beech, J. M. Anderson, and W. C. Black, "Narrow End-On Giant Magnetoresistance Read-Head Sensors," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 33, No. 3, p. 2392, May 1997 (©1997 IEEE).

J. M. Daughton, "Magnetic tunneling applied to memory (.pdf)," presented at the 41st Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, November 12, 1996, Atlanta, Ga. Published in Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 81, No. 8, p. 3758, April 15, 1997 (this article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics).

R. S. Beech, J. Anderson, J. Daughton, B. A. Everitt, and D. Wang, "Spin dependent tunneling devices fabricated using photolithography (.pdf)," presented at INTERMAG, April 9, 1996, Seattle. Published in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 4713 - 4715, Sept. 1996 (©1996 IEEE).

J. L. Brown, “High Sensitivity Magnetic Field Sensor Using GMR Materials With Integrated Electronics,” presented at International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, April 29-May 3, 1995, Seattle (abstract).

J. L. Brown and A. V. Pohm, "1-Mb memory chip using giant magnetoresistive memory cells," IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology,
Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 373 - 379, September 1994.